Architecture and Furniture Research

Neoclassical Architecture and Art Deco Architecture

Details

Neoclassical Architecture

Popular in the mid 1800’s, this style was influenced by classic architecture styles from antiquity, like Greek and Roman. Common features of neoclassical architecture include columns or decorative pillars, decorative pediments above columns, and carved marble statues or reliefs. Neoclassical buildings were often very large, and its elements were usually very massive and grand, such as huge lion statues, or extremely wide and tall pillars.

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Art Deco Architecture

Popular in the 1930’s and 1930’s, this style was influenced by Egyptian architecture from ancient times, as king tut’s tomb was uncovered around this time, and travel to exotic lands, like Egypt, was readily available. It was in response to the very flowery motifs and curvy lines of the Art Nouveau movement that preceded it, in that Art Deco involved straight, precise lines and geometric shapes. Art deco combined fine craftsmanship with luxury materials, such as gold and stainless steel.

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Culture

Neoclassical Architecture

The revival of Greek and Roman influences in architecture during the mid 1800’s in america, can be attributed to the american renaissance, which took place in the later half of the century. During this time, America was a fairly new country, and had implemented many radically new ideas in its government, inspired by the democracy of the roman empire from antiquity. Influenced by the enlightenment that preceded it, classical works were revived in an effort to champion rationality, thus classical architecture was also revised. The Brooklyn Bridge is a prime example of neoclassical style with reference to a a bridge.

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Art Deco Architecture

During the time in which Art Deco was most popular, was during the tumultuous time between the two world wars that rocked the world in the early 1900’s. Art deco saw its beginnings after WWI had ended during the roaring twenties. As a response to the organic and flowing shapes of Art Nouveau, Art Deco exuded luxury and extravagance in its style, which reflected the state of America’s prosperity before the Great Depression. When the Great Depression hit, many architectural projects were commissioned to give people work, known as the New Deal. These projects, such as bridges, were often built in an art deco style. The Golden Gate Bridge is also a good example of the art deco style in the 1930’s.

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Historical Influences

Neoclassical Architecture

As said before, neoclassical architecture was historically influenced by the architecture of the Greek and Romans in ancient times. Many neoclassical buildings have columns and a pediment in the front, similar to the ancient Greek temple pictured below. Arches and pilasters seen on the coliseum found in Rome, the capital of the Ancient Roman Empire, are also commonly seen on neoclassical buildings and bridges, like arches of the Brooklyn Bridge.

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Art Deco Architecture

On the other hand, Art Deco, about a century later than Neoclassical, was also influenced by ancient architecture and design. Taking influence from ancient Egyptians this time, Art Deco had very prominent designs inspired by sunbursts, papyrus plants, and winged shapes, along with geometric patterns and shapes. Along with begin influence by the ancient Egyptians, Art Deco was influenced by Art Nouveau, which came before it, but was more geometric and sharp.

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Technological Influences

Neoclassical Architecture

Following the rebirth if classical style and thought, the industrial revolution had taken place. Such developments of mass production in factories, use of steam, and the invention of new machines and tools, along with the streamlined factory system, made recreating the once tedious task of hand carving every column, as done in antiquity, much easier during the mid 1800’s. The expansion of the iron industry during this time allowed for the use of iron in neoclassical structures, as seen in this drawing.

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Art Deco Architecture

During when Art Deco was a popular architecture style, stainless was a new invention. Many art deco skyscrapers, like the Chrysler building and the empire state building, were made out of the recently invented stainless steel. This material was used as the internal structure of the skyscrapers as it was very strong, and it was used to cover the outside of the buildings since it resisted corrosion. on the Chrysler building especially, stainless steel was used to create its famous crown and the art deco gargoyles on it.

 

Elements and Principles of Design

Neoclassical Architecture

Neoclassical architecture focuses mainly on vertical lines and figures, as tall columns are commonplace in neoclassical designs. These columns often had vertical stripes carved into the sides, which drew the eyes up and made the buildings look taller, and overall larger. pediments above the columns were often used, and the right angle of the top would create the rhythm of opposition, along with the right angle of the vertical columns meeting the horizontal support.

Art Deco Architecture

Art deco featured many geometric shapes, which were made up of straight and diagonal lines, which often gave the feeling of motion and excitement. Radiation was also a rhythm that was created by many of the shapes and designs that art deco displayed. Sunbursts, rays, and fans were used frequently in art deco architecture, and the widening shapes created the rhythm of radiation.

 

Pictures

Neoclassical

 

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Art Deco

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Visual Interpretation Three Period Four

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International Architecture

This is Kendall Jenner’s new house, which displays international architecture. The house has many boxy and geometric shapes, while also being made out of industrial materials such as concrete, glass, and iron frames. This house is a modern addition to the upscale neighborhood of Beverly Hills, and the flat roof has a roof deck with a gorgeous view.

 

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Craftsman Architecture

This upscale home in Vancouver has a distinctly craftsman style. Although it is a modern rendition, this house is still true to its roots with its incorporation of natural materials like the natural stone foundation and pillars, and the wood shingles on the side of the house. This craftsman house also has a low pitched gable roof which is a distinct characteristic of the craftsman style.

 

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Cape Cod Architecture

This house has a cape cod style with dormers, and inspiration from the traditional colonial style. This house it two stories with a steeply pitched gable roof with dormers to add more space and to house windows for light. The doorway is also central making the balance of the house symmetrical.

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Spanish Architecture

This mansion was  built with a Spanish style, as seen by its many features influenced by old world Mediterranean and Iberian peninsular styles. The red cylindrical tiled roof, arched windows and doorways, iron railing and window panes, and cream stucco walls define this house as Spanish.

 

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Rococo Furniture

This chair dipslays the french style called rococo very well. In response to baroque, rococo pieces were made more delicate and less decorated, as seen in this simply designed chair with straight legs and small carvings. This chair  also has a pastel color scheme of baby blue fabric and light milk washed wood, common with others from the rococo period.

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Art Nouveau Furniture

This chair exhibits the art nouveau style, popular at the beginning of the 1900’s. Art nouveau has a very decorative flowery design aesthetics, as represented in the embossed leather and carved wood of this chair. The overall shape and outline of the chair, with its curving lines  and diagonal supports continues the art nouveau influence.

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Art Deco Furniture

Art deco was a more streamlined and geometric style period than that of art nouveau. Diagonal lines that created patterns and shapes, especially those that radiated out like sun rays, as seen in the design of the back cushion, were very popular during when this style en vogue. The vertical lines created by metal bars supporting the chair continued this geometric theme seen with art deco.

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Bauhaus Furniture

Bauhaus style, originated from a German school of design, used a lot of tubular metal in their design, while focusing on the utilitarian aspect of the piece. This chair is very simple as to serve its purpose, but still has some aesthetic presence with the metal tubes that were curved in a continuous loop. This chair has simple lines and curves, fitting well with the Bauhaus style.

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Modern Furniture

This chair is a very good example of the modern style, with its complex geometric metal base, and molded plastic seat. The transparent pink acrylic in a very modern material, and a modern process was used to mold it into the shape of a chair. Supported by what seems like very thin chrome tubes, the chair feels very airy as you can literally see through it, taking up very little visual space, a very modern concept.

 

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Gable Roof

This house has a gable roof, as it is a two sided steeply pitched roof that meets at a “gable” or the point where the two sides of the roof meet at the top of the house. The sides of the house where the meet the gable roof has a triangular shape as to match the point of the gable. The sides where the gable roof slopes down has a wide overhang.

 

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Gambrel Roof

A Gambrel roof is a modification of the gable roof, in that is has two sides, both those ides are split into two different faces, which have different degrees of slope. The top “gable park of the roof, is fairly steeply pitched, but not as steeply pitched as the almost vertical lower sections of this gambrel roof. The front face of this house also has a similar triangular shape, but it is modified to fit the shape of the roof, giving the house a barn like feel.

 

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Shed Roof

This house has a shed roof, named as it is the most common roof found on sheds, and it is the simplest roof. The taller portion of the house has a steeply pitched shed roof, which has just one side that slopes, so that rain and snow can slide off. The shorter part of the house also has a shed roof, and if they were connected and had the same slope to their sides, it could be considered a gable roof, but they are not connected, and one roof side is steeper than the other.

Visual Interpretation Two Interior Design Period Four

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Symmetrical Balance

This wall has symmetrical balance because the of the pair of identical armchairs. They also have the same pillows on them and a symmetrical flower art above the chairs on the wall. This symmetrical wall gives the room a formal feel, balancing out the asymmetry of the decorative items on the coffee table

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Asymmetrical Balance

This room has an asymmetrical balance balance because both sides of the room are different. On one side of the couch there is a side table with a lamp, and two sitting chairs are also on that side of the room. On the opposite side of the room there is one swinging chair and plant. There are also two different rugs that overlap, but each one is predominately on each side of the room. This asymmetry gives the room an informal and relaxed feeling.

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Emphasis

the emphasis on this wall is the boldly patterned and brightly colored couch. The large floral print in vibrant colors on the fabric of the upholstered couch draws the eye to it. Drawing the eye to the couch makes this wall seem more important and as the focus of the room.

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Good Scale

This small room has good scale because it contains small furniture. The small loveseat is a perfect alternative to a large sectional or sofa, since this room appears to be very small. Ths small coffee tables also fit well into the room because they can be pulled part to become smaller pieces. The small art pieces on the wall are also in good scale to the small room since small rooms have small walls and the fit the wall well. The good scale in this room makes the room actually look bigger even though the furniture is small.

 

 

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Good Proportion

This room has good proportion in that is displays elements of the golden mean of 2/3. The wall in this room is split up into 3 sections, 2 of which are the shelves, and the third being the couch. This breakup of the wall into three sections lend itself to having a pleasing proportion of the selves taking up 2/3 of the wall. This good proportion makes for an aesthetically pleasing space that isn’t just cut in half by 1/2 proportions.

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Harmony

This room has harmony in that is has variety and unity represented in it. There is unity between all of the pink/orchid colored items such as the book on the coffee table, the flowers on the pillow, and the art print. There is variety in this room with the differing textures and materials, from the gold metal legs of the coffee table, to the faux fur of the pillows, and to the glass of the round mirror above the couch. This harmony create balance between the things that are similar and different in this room.

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Structural Design

This room has structural design because it has exposed brick walls. These brick walls have a physical texture that is rough and bumpy. The floors also have structural design because they have textured lines and the floor isn’t perfectly smooth. The shag rug in the center of the room also has structural deign in that it has a soft and nubby texture.

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Naturalistic Decorative Design

The wallpaper in this room is an example of a naturalistic decorative design, because the leaves and plants printed on it look realistic and as they would look in nature. The natural looking leaves give the room a tropical, lush and earthy feeling, which can be both calming and energizing, as is with being outside amongst nature.

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Stylized Decorative Design

This geometric bear decal on the wall of this room is a good example of stylized decorative design. the shape is recognizable as a bear, which can be found in nature, but it does not look exactly as a bear would outdoors. The geometric shapes and lines that make up the shape of the bear make it stylistic. This design gives the room a combo of having something inspired by nature while also being a in an abstract form, which makes for an interesting and pleasing addition to the room.

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Abstract Decorative Design

This room contains an abstract decorative design, evident in the art design above the pink couch. This abstract print does not look like anything found in nature and does not represent anything found in nature. The abstract print is made up of several shapes and colors to create its overall design. This abstract design gives the room an artistic feel.

“This starburst mirror represents a great accomplishment. Before I moved to Maui I worked as an interior designer. I have ALWAYS wanted this mirror, but it was out of my price range. When I started Pandeia, my line of compass sundial watches, I used the memory of this mirror as a source for my logo inspiration. Once Pandeia took off and I finally had a little extra change I splurged on this mirror. Every time I look at it, it reminds me of my growth and accomplishments in business.”:

Rhythm: Radiation

The rhythm radiation is created by lines that flow out from center point, just like how the “rays” of this sunburst mirror spread outwards from the center, or the actual mirror. The lines coming out from the center draw the eye to the center of the art piece which makes the overall mirror look larger than it actually is.

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Rhythm: Gradation

This room has a rhythm of gradation because it has ombre walls. The bottom of the walls near the floor are a peachy pinker color which get light land lighter the farther up the wall, you go. This draws the eye up the wall giving the illusion of height like a tall ceiling.

A Cheery Midwestern Home Dedicated to Keeping Spirits High | Design*Sponge:

Rhythm: Repetition

The repetition of the round cut end of the logs in the fireplace create the rhythm of repetition. This creates an emphasis out of the fireplace as the eye is drawn towards the repetition of the circles created by the ends of the logs which fill the space inside the fireplace.